Masjid Quba (Arabic: مسجد قباء) is where the Prophet (ﷺ), accompanied by Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه), first stayed in Madinah after emigrating from Makkah. They arrived on Monday 12th Rab’i al-Awwal, fourteen years after Prophethood and this date marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar (Hijra), (16th July 622 CE). A mosque was established here by the Prophet (ﷺ), the first to be built in Islam.
- The virtue of Masjid Quba is mentioned in the following Quranic verse in Surah Taubah: “…certainly a masjid founded on piety from the very first day is more deserving that you should stand in it…” [9:108]
- The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “He who purifies himself at his home and comes to Masjid Quba and offers two rakats therein, will be rewarded the reward of an Umrah (lesser pilgrimage).” [Sunan ibn Majah]
- The people of Yathrib (which was later named Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, the Enlightened City) had long awaited the Prophet (ﷺ), and each day they would go beyond the fields and palm groves and wait for him until the sun became unbearable. One day the people returned to their homes after waiting a long time for the Prophet. A Jew happened to catch a glimpse of a small group of white-robed travellers in the distance. He called out: “O people of Arabia! What you have been waiting for has arrived!”
- The Muslims lifted their weapons and rushed to greet the Prophet (ﷺ). There was a great clamour as everyone ran to the edge of the desert to catch a glimpse of the travellers. The Prophet (ﷺ) then turned toward the right and came to Banu Amr bin Auf at Quba. Most of the Muslims who had emigrated from Makkah had stayed at Quba and many of them were there when the Prophet (ﷺ) arrived.
- After reaching Quba, the Prophet (ﷺ) dismounted. Those of the Ansar (literally meaning ‘the helpers’, the name given to those in Al-Madinah who became Muslim) who had not seen the Prophet (ﷺ) thought that Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) was the prophet because his hair had grown a little gray. But when they saw Abu Bakr shade the Prophet (ﷺ) with a sheet, they realized their mistake.
- It was a time of great joy from both sides. The Prophet (ﷺ) addressed them saying: “O People, give unto one another greetings of peace; feed the people; strengthen the ties of kinship, pray in the hours when others are asleep. Even so shall ye enter paradise in peace.”
- On arriving in the village of Quba after the blessed Hijra (migration), the Prophet (ﷺ) stayed for several days in the house of Kulthoom bin Hadm (رضي الله عنه) and laid the foundations of Masjid Quba on his land. Prior to the migration of the Prophet (ﷺ) the Muslims sometimes offered their Friday prayers at the house of Sa’ad ibn Khaithamah (رضي الله عنه) which was close by. The location of this house was included in the modern day extension of Masjid Quba but the location of the house of Kulthoom bin Hadm (رضي الله عنه) is marked by a few boulders to the south-west of Masjid Quba.
- The Prophet (ﷺ) personally carried stones, rocks and sand with his companions for the construction work. Al-Tabarani quoted Al-Shimous Bint Al-Nuaman as saying, “I saw the Prophet when he constructed this mosque. He used to carry stones and rocks on his back until it was bent. I also saw dust on his dress and belly. But when one of his companions would come to take the load off him, he would say no and ask the companion to go and carry a similar load instead.”
- Ali (رضي الله عنه) stayed on for three days after the Prophet (ﷺ) secretly left Makkah for Madinah. During this period he settled all the Prophet’s (ﷺ) affairs in Makkah. He then left on foot and met up with the Prophet (ﷺ) in Quba.
- Narrated by Abdullah bin Dinar: Ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) said, “The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba every Saturday (sometimes) walking and (sometimes) riding.”
- Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) led the first group prayer from Quba Mosque when Al-Aqsa Mosque in Al-Quds (Jerusalem) was the Qibla at the time. That Friday he left Quba with Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه). He sent a message to Banu Najjar, the house of his maternal grandfather. His kinsmen came to Quba and joined the Prophet (ﷺ) on his way to Madinah.
References: History of Madinah Munawwarah – Dr. Muhammad Ilyas Abdul Ghani, When the Moon Split – Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri, Muhammad – Martin Lings, History of Madina – Ali Hafiz