The masjid above is Masjid Nimrah and is located on the plain of Arafat. When the Prophet (ﷺ) was at Arafat on his farewell Hajj on the ninth day of Dhul Hijjah 10 AH (632 CE) he camped here. After midday he delivered his famous sermon (reproduced below) at Waadi Urana nearby while seated on his camel, after which he led the salah. More than 100,000 Sahabah accompanied him on this Hajj.
- After praising, and thanking Allah the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present today. O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…Beware of Shaitan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people”.
- Shortly after the Prophet (ﷺ) had finished addressing the people, he received a revelation from Allah: “Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favour upon you, and I have chosen Islam as your religion.” [5:3]
- In the second century of Islam, Masjid Nimrah was built at the spot where the Prophet (ﷺ) delivered the sermon and led the salah. Because Waadi Urana, where the sermon was delivered is outside the boundaries of Arafat, that section of the masjid is naturally also outside the boundaries. When the masjid was extended afterwards, it then became divided into two sections; the front section which was the location of the original masjid being outside Arafat and the back section being within the boundaries. After renovations, signboards were erected inside the masjid to inform people about this matter so that after performing their Zuhr and Asr salahs in congregation, they could either move to the back of the masjid or outside to spend the rest of their time in Arafat. Should a person spend all his time from midday to sunset in the front section of the masjid, his stay at Arafat will be invalid and his Hajj will therefore be incomplete.
References: The History of Makkah Mukarramah – Dr Muhammad Ilyas Abdul Ghani, Muhammed the last Prophet – Sayyed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi, Wikipedia